Acids are a general term for a class of chemical compounds.


The narrow definition of acid in chemistry is that all cations ionized in aqueous solution are compounds of hydrogen ions. This theory which is came up with by Arenius is called the theory of acid-base.


Most of these substances are soluble in water, but a few, such as silicic acid, are difficult to be soluble in water. Water solutions of acids are generally conductive, and the conductivity is generally related to its ionization degree in water. Some acids exist in water in the form of molecule and do not conduct electricity. Some acids dissociate into positive and negative ions in water and can conduct electricity.


Acids are widely used in many industries and laboratories. Sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are commonly used. Many chemical reactions take place in aqueous solution, and pH value is very important. If carbon dioxide is injected into the solution containing Ca2+, the precipitation of calcium carbonate depends on the pH value of the solution. Some reactions must be carried out at a constant pH value. For this reason, the solution of weak acid (base) and its salt liquid is often used as buffer solution. Normal people's blood pH is about 7.4 (which contains HCO and HCO, HPO and HPO), and slight changes will affect health.


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