Ketones are carbonyl compounds linked to two alkyl groups. Ketones can be divided into aliphatic ketones, alicyclic ketones, aromatic ketones, saturated ketones and unsaturated ketones according to the different alkyl groups in the molecules. The carbonyl group of aromatic ketones is directly attached to the aromatic ring; the carbonyl group embedded in the ring is called cyclohexanone, such as cyclohexanone. According to the number of carbonyl groups, it can be divided into monoketone, diketone and polyketone. In monoketones, two alkyl groups linked by carbonyl groups are called monoketones, such as acetone (dimethyl ketone). The ketones different from each other are mixed ketones, such as acetophenone (phenylmethyl ketone). Ketone molecules do not form hydrogen bonds,and the boiling point of ketones is lower than that of corresponding alcohols, but carbonyl oxygen energy and water molecules form hydrogen bonds, so ketones having low numbers of carbon (lower ketones) dissolve in water. Low ketones are liquids with pleasant odors and ketones having high carbon numbers (higher ketones) are solids.


Ketones have active chemical properties and are easily having nucleophilic addition reactions with hydrocyanic acid, grignard reagent, hydroxylamine, alcohol, etc. They can be reduced to alcohols. Under the polarization of carbonyl group, ketones with alpha-H can undergo halogenation reaction, and ketones with methyl can undergo halogenation reaction under alkaline conditions. It is prepared by the reaction of secondary alcohol oxidation, aromatics acylation and carboxylic acid derivatives with organic metal compounds. Acetone and cyclohexanone are important chemical raw materials.


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